In my previous posts I did some writngs on UTPLSQL and ruby-plsql.

For long time, while developing Oracle code I was using ruby-plsql to do test driven development for SQL and PL/SQL.
I used to frequently forget how to use some of the functionalities of ruby-plsql, specially after having a longer break and so each time I was referring the Unit Tests supplied for the ruby-plsql library as a reference. They are really nicely documenting how things work and how can they be used. It usually took me few minutes to find the thing I needed.

While I was actively using ruby-plsql for testing Oracle SQL and PLSQL code, it never occurred to me, that it would be nice to have some kind of cheat sheet, and so I wasted the valuable seconds and minutes to figure out how to do things I needed to do.

This week however, Turntablez posted a suggestion on ruby-plsql-spec github project page that a cheat sheet would be something of a use.

It was a really great idea, saves precious minutes when you need to use something you’re not used to or just don’t do every day.

So here it is, fully downloadable, editable and hopefully usable Cheat Sheet for ruby-plsql.

It’s not a reference, it’s not complete (or official), but hopefully it’s a good overview and a fast help if you need to see how things work.

If you prefer a more visual/printable form, you might want to check out the same Cheat Sheet on

Or just download the PDF version.

#Session / connection settings

plsql(:default).connect! {:username => 'hr', :password => 'hr', :database => 'xe'}
plsql.connect! {:username => 'hr', :password => 'hr', :database => 'xe'}
# opens a connection to database (referenced by Symbol :default, or no symbol at all)

plsql(:another).connect! {:username => 'hr', :password => 'hr', :database => 'xe'}
# opens a second connection (referenced by Symbol :another)

plsql.connection.prefetch_rows = 100
# sets number of rows to be fetched at once from the database for default connection

#  [11, 2, 0, 2]
# returns version of database as an array of elements: major, minor, update, patch

plsql.dbms_output_stream = STDOUT
# sets redirects dbms_output to standard output (console)
# works even if exception on code occurs

plsql.dbms_output_buffer_size = 100_000
# sets dbms_output buffer size to 100,000

#disconnects connection (referenced by symbol :another) from the database
#  PLSQL::Schema
# You can reference objects in other schemas using schema name


plsql(:another).connection.autocommit = false
#disables auto commit in :another connection

#  true
# returns the current status of autocommit for connection

#commits a transaction in :default connection

#rollbacks all uncommited changes in the current transaction for :another connection

plsql.savepoint "save_this_point"
#sets a transaction savepoint in :default connection

plsql.rollback_to "save_this_point"
#performs a rollback of transaction to specified savepoint in :default connection

#Execute SQL statement or PLSQL block

plsql.execute "CREATE SYNONYM employees_synonym FOR employees"
# executes any given string as a SQL or PLSQL statement

plsql.execute <<-SQL
	CREATE TABLE test_employees (
	  employee_id   NUMBER(15),
	  name          VARCHAR2(50),
	  hire_date     DATE
#executes multi-line string statements too

#Insert into table

plsql.employees.insert {:employee_id => 1, :name => 'James bond', :hire_date => Time.local(0007,07,07)}
# inserts one row into the employees table using key-value pairs (Ruby Hash object)

plsql.employees.insert {:employee_id => 2, :name => 'Tony Stark'}
# inserts one row into the employees table, with partial column list

plsql.employees.insert [ {:employee_id => 3, :name => 'Darth Vader'}, {:employee_id => 4, :name => 'Luke Skywalker'}]
# inserts multiple rows into the employees table using Array of Hashes

plsql.employees.insert_values *[ [ 5, 'Batman', Time.local(1990,01,01)], [6,'Spiderman',Time.local(1999,02,02)] ]
# inserts multiple rows, specifying Array of Array of values 

plsql.employees.insert_values [:employee_id, :name], *[ [ 7, 'Superman'], [8, 'Hulk'] ]
# inserts multiple rows, specifying columns first and subset of values

plsql.employees.insert_values [ 9, 'Thor', Time.local(1990,09,09)]
# inserts one row, specifying only Array of values

plsql.employees.insert_values [:employee_id, :name], [ 10, 'Sandman' ]
# inserts one row, specifying subset of columns (Array) and Array of values

#Select statements, "SELECT * FROM employees")
#  {:employee_id => 1, :name => 'James bond', :hire_date => '0007-07-07'}
# returns first row of a query as a Ruby Hash

plsql.select_one("SELECT count(*) FROM employees")
#  10
# returns a scalar value from a first row from single column query

plsql.select_one("SELECT employee_id FROM employees WHERE 1=2")
#  nil
# returns nil Object (NULL) when no data found, "SELECT * FROM employees ORDER BY employee_id")
#  [ {:employee_id => 1, :name => 'James bond', :hire_date => '0007-07-07'}, {...}, ... ]
# returns all rows from a query as an Array of Hashes

#Select from a table/view, "ORDER BY employee_id")
plsql.employees.first("ORDER BY employee_id")
#  {:employee_id => 1, :name => 'James bond', :hire_date => '0007-07-07'}
# returns first row from a table, "WHERE employee_id = :a", 2)
plsql.employees.first("WHERE employee_id = :a", 2)
plsql.employees.first(:employee_id => 2)
#  {:employee_id => 2, :name => 'Tony Stark', :hire_date => nil}
# returns first row from a table with WHERE condition, "ORDER BY employee_id")
plsql.employees.all("ORDER BY employee_id")
plsql.employees.all(:order_by => :employee_id)
#  [ {:employee_id => 1, :name => 'James bond', :hire_date => '0007-07-07'}, {...}, ... ]
# returns all rows from a table sorted using ORDER BY

plsql.employees.all(:employee_id => 2, :order_by => :employee_id)
#  [ {:employee_id => 2, :name => 'Tony Stark', :hire_date => nil} ]
# returns all rows from a table with WHERE condition

plsql.employees.all "WHERE employee_id = 2 AND hire_date IS NULL" 
plsql.employees.all( {:employee_id => 2, :hire_date => nil} )
#  [ {:employee_id => 2, :name => 'Tony Stark', :hire_date => nil} ]
# returns all rows from a table with WHERE condition on NULL value

plsql.employees.all(:hire_date => :is_not_null)
#  [ {:employee_id => 1, :name => 'James bond', :hire_date => '0007-07-07'}, {...}, ... ]
# returns all rows from a table with WHERE condition on NOT NULL value
#  10
# returns count of rows in the table

#Update table/view

plsql.employees.update :name => 'Test'
# updates field name in all records

plsql.employees.update :name => 'Superman II', :where => {:employee_id => 7}
plsql.employees.update :name => 'Superman II', :where => "employee_id = 7"
# updates field in table with a where condition

plsql.employees.update :name => 'Superman II', :hire_date => Time.local(2000,01,01), :where => "employee_id = 7"
# updates two fields in table with a where condition

#Delete from table/view

plsql.employees.delete :employee_id => 10
plsql.employees.delete "employee_id = 10"
#delete record in table with WHERE condition

#Table/View meta-data

plsql.execute "CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW employees_v AS SELECT * FROM employees"
#creates a VIEW

#  PLSQL::View
# The employees_v Object is of PLSQL::View class

#  PLSQL::Table
# The employees Object is of PLSQL::Table class

#  PLSQL::Table
# The emplyees_synonym Object is also of PLSQL::Table class

#  [ employee_id, name, hire_date ]
# returns all column names in table

#  { :employee_id => {
          :position=>1, :data_type=>"NUMBER", :data_length=>22, :data_precision=>15, :data_scale=>0, :char_used=>nil,
          :type_owner=>nil, :type_name=>nil, :sql_type_name=>nil, :nullable => false, :data_default => nil}
   , ...}
# returns column meta-data


plsql.execute "CREATE SEQUENCE employees_seq"
#executes a statement to create a sequence

#  1
# returns NEXTVAL for sequence

#  1
# returns CURRVAL for sequence


# PLSQL::Package
# A plsql package is Object of PLSQL::Package class

plsql.test_package.test_variable = 1
# Assigns a value to package public variable

#  1
# Reads a value to package public variable

#Procedure / Function

# given a FUNCTION uppercase( p_string VARCHAR2 ) RETURN VARCHAR2

plsql.uppercase( 'xxx' )
plsql.uppercase( :p_string => 'xxx' )
#  'XXX'
# executes the function binding parameters by position or name and returns scalar Object as a value

# given a FUNCTION copy_function( p_from VARCHAR2, p_to OUT VARCHAR2, p_to_double OUT VARCHAR2 ) RETURN NUMBER

plsql.copy_function( 'abc', nil, nil)
plsql.copy_function( :p_from => 'abc', :p_to => nil, :p_to_double => nil)
plsql.copy_function( 'abc' )
#  [ 3, { :p_to => "abc", :p_to_double => "abcabc" } ]
# executes the function and returns 2 element Array
# with first element being function result and second element being a Hash of OUT parameters

#Given a PROCEDURE copy_proc( p_from VARCHAR2, p_to OUT VARCHAR2, p_to_double OUT VARCHAR2 )

plsql.copy_proc( 'abc', nil, nil)
plsql.copy_proc( :p_from => 'abc', :p_to => nil, :p_to_double => nil)
plsql.copy_proc( 'abc' )
#  { :p_to => 'abc', :p_to_double => 'abcabc' }
# executes the procedure and returns a Hash of OUT parameters as a :name => 'value' pairs

#Record types/Object Types

#Given a FUNCTION get_full_name( p_employee employees%ROWTYPE ) RETURN VARCHAR2

plsql.get_full_name( {:p_employee => {:employee_id => 2, :first_name => 'Tony', :last_name => 'Stark', :hire_date => nil} } )
plsql.get_full_name( {:employee_id => 2, :first_name => 'Tony', :last_name => 'Stark', :hire_date => nil} )
plsql.get_full_name( {'EMPLOYEE_ID' => 2, 'first_name' => 'Tony', 'last_NaMe' => 'Stark', 'hire_date' => nil} )
#  'Tony Stark'
# Accepts a record as a parameter (by name or by position) and executes the function returning String (VARCHAR2)
# Record fields can be defined as a Symbol (:employee_id) or as a String ('employee_id')
# Works the same way with package level record types and Oracle object types

#Varrays and Nested Tables

#Given a TYPE table_of_int IS TABLE OF INTEGER;

plsql.sum_items( [1,2,3,4,5] )
plsql.sum_items( :p_items => [1,2,3,4,5] ) 
#  15
# Nested tables are passed in and returned as Ruby Array Object type
# Works the same way for VARRAYS

#Associative arrays (aka plsql tables, index-by tables)

#Given a package MY_PACKAGE
# contains FUNCTION sum_items(p_items INDEX_TABLE_OF_INT) RETURN INTEGER;

plsql.my_package.sum_items( { -1 => 1, 5 => 2, 3 => 3, 4 => 4} )
#  10
# Associative arrays are passed in and returned as a Ruby Hash containing list of key value pairs
# Where key is the element position in Array and value is the value at the position



plsql.get_employees do |result|
#  [ :employee_id, :name, :hire_date ]
# returns the list of columns of a cursor as an Array

plsql.get_employees do |result|
plsql.get_employees{ |cursor| cursor.fetch_hash_all }
plsql.get_employees{ |any_name| any_name.fetch_hash_all }
#  [ {:employee_id => 1, :name => 'James bond', :hire_date => '0007-07-07'}, {...}, ... ]
# fetches all rows from a cursor and returns them as an Array of Hashes
# cursor needs to be accessed inside a block ( do .. end / { .. } ) 
# as cursors are automatically closed after the function call ends

plsql.get_employees{ |result| result.fetch_hash }
#  {:employee_id => 1, :name => 'James bond', :hire_date => '0007-07-07'}
# fetches one row from a cursor and returns it as a Hash

plsql.get_employees{ |result| result.fetch }
#  [1, 'James bond', '0007-07-07']
# fetches one row from a cursor and returns it as a Array of values

plsql.get_employees{ |result| result.fetch_all }
#  [[1, 'James bond', '0007-07-07'], [...], ... ]
# fetches all rows from a cursor and returns them as an Array of Arrays of values

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